Welcome to European Kitchen! A blog devoted to the delectable cuisines of Europe and beyond. My aims are to explore Europe’s diverse cultures, culinary histories, and cherished regional foods, make local dishes more accessible by providing authentic recipes, and go a little off the beaten track along the way!
This fruity and fluffy Finnish porridge is vegan and can be eaten for breakfast, dessert or as a snack!
|Preparation time: 20 minutes||Cooking time: 25 minutes|
|Cooling time: 60 minutes||Serves: 3|
- 800ml/8dl/1½ pints/3⅓ cups of water
- 280g/10oz/2 cups of lingonberries, cranberries, redcurrants, gooseberries, strawberries, blueberries and/or blackberries
- Pinch of salt
- 100g/3½oz/½ cup of granulated sugar
- 85g/3oz/½ cup of semolina
- A large saucepan
- A sieve
- An electric whisk
- Serving glasses
- Pour the water, berries, sugar and salt into a large saucepan. Set the saucepan over a high heat and bring the berry mixture to the boil. Allow it to boil for 10-15 minutes, or until the berries have begun to break down. Stir occasionally while cooking.
- Pour the berry mixture through a sieve into a large bowl. Discard the berries and pour the berry infused water back into the pan. Return the pan to the hob and set it over a high heat again.
- When the berry water begins to boil, turn the heat down to medium and pour the semolina into the pan. Allow the berry water and semolina to simmer for 5 to 10 minutes, or until the liquid is nicely thickened. Stir it regularly while it’s cooking.
- Remove the pan from the hob and leave the berry water and semolina mixture to cool down to room temperature.
- Use an electric whisk to whip up the berry water and semolina mixture. It’s ready when it’s very fluffy and has become lighter in colour- this will take at least 10 minutes.
- Pour the finished Vispipuuro into serving glasses and refrigerate until ready to serve.
- Hyvää ruokahalua!/Smaklig måltid!
- You don’t have to remove the berries from the berry water before adding the semolina. If you leave them in the Vispipuuro will be less fluffy but much fruitier!
- Make sure the Vispipuuro is cold before serving. If you like you can pour milk over it and garnish it with berries.
- Vispipuuro can be eaten for dessert, breakfast or as a snack.
Home: Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Norway, Latvia
Relatives: Manų Košė (Lithuania), Rødgrød (Denmark, Germany), Tejbegríz (Hungary), Helmipuuro (Finland), Guriev Kasha (Russia), Semolina Pudding (UK), Mousse (France)
In Finland, lingonberries are the preferred fruit for making Vispipuuro. The lingonberry shrub is resilient to cold but struggles in warmer temperatures, so it thrives in the Baltoscandian subarctic climate. Finland itself has a low population density and encompasses vast swathes of wilderness, made up of boreal forests, plateaus and hundreds of thousands of large lakes, so the country has plenty of space for wild lingonberry shrubs to grow. As a result many Finnish people are able to handpick wild lingonberries and don’t have to rely on cultivated fruits.
Lingonberries are naturally tart so they are usually sweetened with lots of sugar. They are used in jams, compotes, juices, smoothies, as well as in sauces for elk and reindeer steaks. Particular recipes made using lingonberries include Mors (a Russian drink often taken with vodka), Lingonpäron (a Swedish dessert of pears cooked in lingonberry juice), Kroppkakor (Swedish dumplings garnished with lingonberries) and Poronkäristys (Finnish sautéed reindeer with mashed potatoes and lingonberries.)
Vispipuuro itself (‘whipped porridge’) is eaten in Finland as well as in neighbouring countries. As it’s a widespread dish it’s known by many names: Lappaporru in western Finland, Klappgröt in Sweden, Mannavaht in Estonia, Uzputenis in Latvia and Russedessert in Norway. Its Norwegian name suggests Vispipuuro is of Russian origin, but its history is quite undocumented, so we don’t know for sure! Vispipuuro first made its way into Scandinavian cookbooks in the early 20th century, but is probably much, much older.
These traditional Bavarian Lebkuchen are easy to make and perfect for Christmas!
|Preparation time: 40 minutes||Cooking time: 20 minutes|
|Makes: Approx. 15 biscuits||Difficulty: Moderate|
For the Lebkuchengewurz:
- 3 teaspoons of ground cinnamon
- 1 teaspoon of ground ginger
- ¾ teaspoon of crushed cloves
- ½ teaspoon of ground cardamom
- ½ teaspoon of ground nutmeg
- ½ teaspoon of ground pepper
- ⅙ teaspoon of ground aniseed
- ⅙ teaspoon of ground coriander
For the Lebkuchen:
- 100g/3½oz/½ cup of butter
- 150g/5oz/just under ½ cup of honey
- 100g/3½oz/½ cup of caster sugar
- 1 egg
- 250ml/2½dl/just under ½ pint/1 cup of milk
- 250g/10½oz/2¾ cups of plain flour`
- 1 teaspoon of baking powder
- 1 tablespoon of cocoa powder
- A pinch of salt
- 200g/5oz/1¼ cups of ground hazelnuts, walnuts or almonds
- 40g/1½oz/½ cup of candied citrus peel
- 125g/4½oz/1 cup of icing sugar
- 200g/7oz/1¼ cups of chocolate
- A teaspoon of flavourless oil (sunflower oil, groundnut oil etc.)
- Whole almonds
Make it vegan: use a plant based margarine instead of butter, and use golden syrup (or a vegan honey like Honea) instead of honey. Use 3 tablespoons of aquafaba instead of the egg, and use soya, oat or almond milk instead of dairy milk. Finally, use a vegan chocolate brand for decoration.
- Two large baking trays
- Baking paper
- A pencil
- A 7cm cup, ramekin or cookie cutter
- A large mixing bowl
- A wooden spoon
- A sieve
- A couple of small bowls
- Preheat the oven to 190°C/375°F/Gas Mark 5.
- Line the baking trays with sheets of baking paper. Set a ramekin, cup or cookie cutter that’s about 7cm in diameter on a sheet of baking paper and draw around it with a pencil. Repeat, making sure you leave a few centimetres between each circle, until you have about 15 circles. (Depending on the size of your baking trays/oven, you may need to prepare a few extra baking sheets and cook the Lebkuchen in batches.)
- Make the Lebkuchengewurz by combining the cinnamon, ginger, cloves, nutmeg, cardamom, pepper, aniseed and coriander together in a small bowl. If any of the spices aren’t pre-ground, use a pestle and mortar to crush them before mixing them with the others.
- Using a wooden spoon, cream the butter, sugar and honey together in a large mixing bowl before folding in the milk and egg.
- Sieve the flour, cocoa powder and baking powder into the mixing bowl and stir them into the butter mixture.
- Add the ground nuts, a pinch of salt and four or five teaspoons of the Lebkuchengewurz to the bowl and stir everything together thoroughly. Finally, fold in the citrus peel.
- Drop a few tablespoons of Lebkuchen mixture onto each of the circles on the baking paper. Use a spoon to flatten and round out each circle.
- Bake the Lebkuchen in the oven for about twenty minutes, or until they’re lightly browned but not burnt. Turn halfway through cooking. Remove the Lebkuchen from the oven and leave them to cool.
- Prepare some chocolate glaze and icing to decorate the Lebkuchen with while they’re cooling. Make the glaze by popping the chocolate and flavourless oil in a small microwaveable bowl and microwaving them in 30 second bursts, stirring in between each one, until the chocolate is melted. Don’t microwave the chocolate for more than 30 seconds at a time because it burns very easily! Leave the glaze for five minutes to cool before using.
- To make the icing, sieve the icing sugar into a small bowl and add about 20ml of water. Stir thoroughly to combine. Add more water if you want the icing to be runny and more icing sugar if you’d like it to be quite thick.
- When the chocolate glaze and icing are prepared, drop one or two large tablespoons of the glaze onto one of the Lebkuchen and use a spoon to smooth it over the whole biscuit. (If it’s really runny and runs off the Lebkuchen, wait a further five to ten minutes until the chocolate has firmed up a little before trying again.) Continue until you have a few chocolate covered Lebkuchen. Repeat the process with the icing, spooning it onto the remaining undecorated Lebkuchen and smoothing it over with a spoon. Then decorate some of the iced Lebkuchen with a couple of whole almonds. (I used glacé cherries!)
- Guten apetit!
- For more flavoursome biscuits, add some raisins, rum and/or desiccated coconut to the Lebkuchen mixture.
- You can easily make enough Lebkuchengewurz for several batches of Lebkuchen at once. To do so, prepare six or seven times as much ground cinnamon, ginger, cloves, cardamom, nutmeg, pepper, aniseed and coriander as needed for this recipe. Mix the spices together, pour them into a clean jar and keep it sealed. When ready, give the jar a good shake before spooning out four or five teaspoons of the Lebkuchengewurz and stirring it into your Lebkuchen mixture.
- If you like, try spooning the Lebkuchen mixture onto some round wafers before baking instead of spreading it straight onto the baking paper. Many recipes call for this: it’s a tradition that can be traced back to the mediaeval monastic origins of Lebkuchen: monks and nuns would use communion wafers as a base for Lebkuchen to prevent the biscuits from sticking.
Pronunciation: [ˈleːpˌku:xn] (leep-kuu-chen)
Home: Southern Germany
Relatives: Piernik (Poland), Pryanik (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus), Pepperkaker (Norway), Pain d’Epices (France), Malt Loaf, Parkin (UK)
The honey cakes eaten by the Egyptians, Romans and Greeks were the ancient predecessors of modern gingerbreads like Lebkuchen. These cakes were made in an age when honey was the only readily available sweetener. Even as the mediaeval sugar trade expanded into Europe many bakers continued to sweeten cakes with honey, which was significantly cheaper and more accessible. But as trade routes from Asia opened up they began to use spices like pepper, and later ginger, and varieties of spiced honey cake became popular cross Europe as a result. These include the German Lebkuchen (‘sweet cake’), Pepperkuchen (‘pepper cake’) and Honigkuchen (‘honey cake’), Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian Pryanik (which derives from the Old Russian word for ‘peppery’), Polish Piernik (also ‘peppery’), Norwegian Pepperkaker (‘pepper cake’) and French Pain d’Epices (‘spice bread.’)
Lebkuchen was invented by monks in Franconia (today part of Bavaria, in central-southern Germany) in the 13th century. It was being made in Ulm (in modern day Baden-Württemberg, south-west Germany) by the late 1200s and in Nürnberg (Nuremberg, in modern day Bavaria) by the late 14th century.
Like Toruń in Poland, Nuremberg was perfectly situated for gingerbread production. The city was on the crossroads of several important trade routes, and was surrounded by the Reichswald, an imperial forest known as the ‘Emperor’s Bee Garden.’ The bakers of Nuremberg thus had access to copious amounts of spices and honey for making Lebkuchen, and the city’s merchants were able to easily export Nürnberger Lebkuchen to neighbouring regions.
Nuremberg’s association with Lebkuchen was solidified when Friedrich III held a Reichstag in the city in 1487. According to local history the emperor invited four thousand of Nuremberg’s children to a special event, where he presented each of them with gifts of Lebkuchen bearing his portrait. Lebkuchen was taken so seriously in Nuremberg that only members of the city’s baker’s guild had permission to make it, and in the 1500s, the city made a pact with Toruń, agreeing to exchange gingerbread secrets and recipes. Today, Nürnberger Lebkuchen has a protected designation of origin, and can only be commercially produced within city limits.
There are many varieties of Lebkuchen, including Elisenlebkuchen (flourless Lebkuchen), Lebkuchenherzen (heart shaped gingerbread), Lebkuchenhaus (gingerbread house) and Hexenhaus (gingerbread witch’s cottage.)
This quick, simple dish tastes lovely and makes a great accompaniment to roast meats.
|Preparation time: 5 minutes||Cooking time: 15 minutes|
|Serves: 4 (as a side)||Difficulty: Easy|
- 5 leeks
- 3 tablespoons of butter
- A sprig of fresh thyme (or a teaspoon of dried thyme)
- A pinch of salt
- A pinch of pepper
Make it vegan: replace the butter with a vegan butter or plant based margarine.
- A medium sized saucepan with a lid
- A colander
- Remove the roots from the leeks and discard them. Chop the leeks into thin diagonal slices and pop them in a colander. Wash them thoroughly under a tap.
- Set a medium sized saucepan over a low-medium heat. Pop the leek slices, along with all the other ingredients, in the pan.
- Place the lid on the pan and allow the leeks to cook gently for 15 minutes, stirring once or twice during cooking time.
- Take the pan off the heat. If you used fresh thyme, remove it from the pan. Then serve the leeks immediately.
- Bon appetit!
- If you’d like the leeks to look nice and neat, use a sprig of fresh thyme and white pepper. This will stop the leeks getting dotted with spots of black pepper and dried thyme.
- Serve the buttered leeks as an accompaniment to a Sunday roast or haggis.
Home: Scotland, Wales, Ireland
Relatives: Braised Cabbage, Fried Onions (International)
Buttered Leeks are very popular in Scotland, Ireland and Wales, and the leek is strongly associated with the latter. It’s the Welsh national emblem, and has been a symbol of Welshness since Shakespeare’s day. This might be because, according to legend, the 7th century king of Gwynedd, Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon, is said to have ordered his troops to identify themselves by tying leeks to their helmets whilst battling a Saxon army in a field of leeks. It might also be because leeks are associated with St David, the Welsh patron saint who was bishop of Mynyw, a settlement in south west Wales, in the 6th century AD. David often fasted and would purportedly only eat leeks while he did so.
Perhaps as a result of these legends, the leek is traditionally worn on St David’s Day in Wales, and is also the cap badge of the Welsh Guards. Leeks are used in a few Welsh recipes, including Cawl, and are also eaten in Wales as an accompaniment to roast lamb.
You only need a couple of simple ingredients to make Kheer, a sweet, creamy and aromatic traditional Indian dessert
|Preparation time: 40 minutes||Cooking time: 2 hours|
|Serves: 4||Difficulty: Easy|
- 45g/1 1/2oz/1/4 cup of basmati rice
- 1100ml/11dl/just under 2 pt/4 1/2 cups of full fat milk
- 90g/3oz/7 tablespoons of sugar
- 5 cardamom pods, crushed
- Chopped pistachios, rose petals and/or saffron strands, to decorate
Make it vegan: You really need full fat milk (as opposed to skimmed or semi-skimmed milk) to make thick and creamy Kheer. To emulate this creaminess with vegan ingredients, use 3 1/2 cups of oat or almond milk (not soya milk) combined with one cup of plant-based single cream.
- A large heavy bottomed saucepan
- A large bowl
- A wooden spoon
- 4 small glasses or terracotta bowls, to serve
- Rinse and drain the basmati rice a few times, until the water runs clear. Then soak the rice in a large bowl of water for half an hour.
- Set a large heavy bottomed saucepan over a medium-high heat. Add a 1/4 cup of water to the pan and bring it to the boil. Allow it to boil for 3 minutes before pouring the water away and returning the pan to the heat. (This process helps prevent the Kheer from sticking to the bottom of the pan and burning.) Immediately add the milk to the pan and bring it to a gentle boil.
- Drain the rice. Add it to the milk with the cardamom and sugar and stir everything together with a wooden spoon. Bring the heat right down to low and allow the Kheer to simmer for about two hours, or until the mixture is nice and thick. While it’s cooking, scrape the bottom of the pan with the wooden spoon occasionally to prevent bits of rice from sticking and burning.
- Pour the finished Kheer into serving bowls or glasses and allow the puddings to rest for about ten minutes- the Kheer will continue to thicken and settle during this time. Then drizzle the finished Kheer with saffron strands, rose petals and/or chopped pistachios.
- Serve the Kheer immediately if you’d like to eat it hot. Alternatively, pop it in the fridge for 5 or 6 hours before serving if you prefer it cold.
- Maze Karein (مزےکریں)/Khuwar Amez Lôûk (খোৱাৰ আমেজ লওঁক)/Kripyā Bhojan Kā Annand Lijīyai (कृपया भोजन का आनंद लीजिये)!
- Kheer has been eaten across the Indian Subcontinent for millennia, so there are many varieties. It can be made with just rice, milk and sugar, but it’s often flavoured and decorated with many ingredients, including cardamoms, almonds, pistachios, cashews, rose water, rose petals, saffron, dried fruit and Kewra water.
- Similarly, while rice is often used to make Kheer, it can also made using tapioca, vermicelli, almonds, carrots, apples and many other ingredients as a base.
- Kheer can also be prepared in different ways- in some areas, the rice is cooked and mashed up before being added to the milk, in others, it’s fried up a little with ghee first.
- Kheer can be eaten hot, cold, or warm depending on how you like it.
Home: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
Relatives: Shola-e-Zard (Afghanistan, Iran) Khira Sagara (India), Eight Treasure Rice Pudding 八寶飯 (China), Rice Pudding (International)
Kheer has been part of the Indian diet for a very, very long time: the dish is mentioned in the ancient Ayurveda texts, and in the 14th century Padmavat of Gujarat. But its specific origins are unknown. Its name derives from the Sanskrit word Kshirika (क्षीर) and/or the Persian word Sheer, both of which mean ‘milk’, and it’s one of many old Indian milk based desserts.
Kheer may have become as popular as it is because of its religious uses. Its main ingredient, rice, gained religious connotations under the Tamil Chola dynasty, and its colouring, Shwet (white), has traditionally been associated with divinity and purity in some parts of India. Perhaps as a result, Kheer became important for religious rituals in some parts of the subcontinent. It has often been linked with the god Shiva, and in some places it is traditionally served to his devotees. It is specifically given to the goddess Ksheer Bhawani as an offering, and is strongly associated with the temples of Guruvayoor and Ambalappuzha, where it’s customarily served to visitors. Kheer is also said to have played an important role in the construction of the Konark Sun Temple, which dates back to the thirteenth century AD: after many failed attempts to build the temple in water, one of its architects used a bowl of Kheer to demonstrate where a bridge could be built to construct it. Today, Kheer is often served up as a treat at religious festivals like Diwali, Ramadan and Eid and at special occasions like birthdays and baby showers, as well as as a casual, everyday dessert.
Because Kheer has been eaten across South Asia and the Indian Subcontinent since ancient times, there are many varieties. It’s eaten hot, warm or cold, made using rices, millets, pastas and fruits as a base, and can be flavoured with many different spices, fruits, nuts and sweets. Regional varieties include Payasam (a thin pudding from southern India, often made with jaggery), Gil-e-Firdaus (a thicker pudding from Hyderbad), Phirni (a northern Indian pudding introduced by Persians, made with ground rice), Payas (eaten in eastern India and Bengal on special occasions) and Payesh (Kheer with jaggery, from eastern India), as well as versions found in surrounding countries, like Sher Birinj (eaten in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan.)
|Preparation time: 1 hour||Cooking time: 20 minutes|
|Serves: 6 (makes about 18)||Difficulty: Moderate|
For the pastry:
- 200g/7oz/just over 1 1/2 cups of plain flour, plus extra for dusting
- 3 tablespoons of olive oil
- A pinch of salt
- 1 egg
- 3 tablespoon of water
For the filling:
- A tablespoon of olive oil
- 2 shallots
- 100g/3 1/2 oz/just under half a cup of spinach leaves
- 340g/12 oz/1 bunch of Swiss chard leaves, stems removed (use bok choy, cavolo nero or leeks as a substitute for Swiss chard if you can’t get ahold of it)
- 2 tablespoons of ricotta OR boiled rice
- A tablespoon of grated Parmesan
- A pinch of salt and pepper
- 2 eggs
- 1 egg
- Olive oil
Make it vegan: Use 2 tablespoons of boiled rice or silken tofu instead of ricotta, and use a tablespoon of vegan cheese instead of Parmesan– or try using homemade vegan ricotta and Parmesan. Use four tablespoons of silken tofu, vegan ricotta, or scrambled egg substitute (like VeganEgg or Scramblit) instead of the eggs in the filling, and use aquafaba or flax egg instead of the egg in the pastry and the egg used to stick the pastries together.
- A sieve
- A large mixing bowl
- A large saucepan
- A frying pan
- A rolling pin
- A 4cm cookie cutter
- To make the pastry, sieve the flour into a large mixing bowl and add the salt, egg, olive oil and water. Mix everything together thoroughly to form a ball of dough.
- Sprinkle some flour onto a clean surface and turn the dough out onto it. Knead it for about 5 minutes, until the dough is smooth. If it seems too crumbly, add a little more cold water, and if it’s too wet, add some more flour.
- Return the dough to the mixing bowl and cover the bowl with a tea towel. Pop it in the fridge to chill for 30 minutes.
- Meanwhile, set a frying pan over a medium heat. Add a tablespoon of olive oil and the shallots, and sauté them for a couple of minutes, stirring occasionally.
- Add the spinach and Swiss chard to the pan with the shallots. Sauté the vegetables for a further 5 to 10 minutes, stirring occasionally, or until the vegetables are tender.
- Remove the pan from the heat and allow its contents to cool for a few minutes. Then add the ricotta or boiled rice, Parmesan, salt, pepper and eggs to the pan and stir everything together thoroughly.
- Sprinkle some flour onto a clean surface. Use a rolling pin to roll out the pastry. It should be about 5mm thickness.
- Use the 4cm cookie cutter to cut out little circles of dough, then roll each circle out more until it’s about 8cm in diameter. Repeat until you have used up all the dough- you should end up with about 18 circles.
- Drop a teaspoon of filling to the centre of each circle. Beat the remaining egg and use a pastry brush to brush it around the edge of each circle. Then fold each circle in half to form semi circles. Press the edges down and seal the pastries with a fork.
- Add some olive oil to a saucepan- it should be at least 8cm deep. Set it over a high heat and heat the oil until it’s about 180’C (or until a bit of pastry dropped into the oil quickly bubbles and begins to brown.)
- Lower a couple of pastries into the oil at a time and fry them for about 5 minutes, or until they’re very hot and golden brown. Repeat until all the pastries have been cooked.
- Serve the Barbajuan immediately, while they’re very hot.
- Bon Appetit!
- If you like you can keep any cooked Barbaguian warm in the oven while the rest are being fried before serving.
Home: Monaco, Northern Italy, French Riviera
Relatives: Cornish Pasty (Cornwall), Pierogi (Poland),
Monaco’s culinary history is interwoven with that of the neighbouring French Riviera and Italian region of Liguria. All three sit on the Mediterranean coast and enjoy its warm climate, so fish and seafood, as well as fresh fruit and vegetables, are abundant and used in many of their recipes. The Swiss chard used in Barbiguian, for example, is also the key component in another Monégasque dish, Swiss Chard Pie. Barbagiuan itself is very popular in the French Riviera, Monaco and Liguria, and in the latter is often stuffed with pumpkin instead of Swiss chard.
Barbagiuan means ‘Uncle John’ in Monégasque. It is named after its supposed creator, a man named Jean (John.) According to legend, Jean was a man who wanted to make ravioli but, realizing he didn’t have anything to use as filling, stuffed his ravioli with Swiss chard and tried frying it. His creation proved to be tasty and popular, and became known as Barba–Giuan (‘Uncle John’) in his honour.
It remains a very popular Monégasque appetizer, and is widely available at Monacan markets. Being Monaco’s national dish it is also a key part of Monaco’s national holiday, La Fête du Prince (November 19th), and is now specifically celebrated at Monaco’s La Fête du Barbagiuan, where attendees can enjoy Barbagiuan cooking demonstrations, culinary classes and Barbagiuan-related events.
Käsknöpfle is a traditional Alpine dish made up of delicious pasta dumplings, topped with melted cheese and caramelized onion.
|Preparation time: 20 minutes||Cooking time: 30 minutes|
|Serves: 4||Difficulty: Moderate|
For the Knöpfle:
- 500g/18oz/4 cups of plain flour
- 8 eggs
- A pinch of salt
- A pinch of nutmeg
- 200ml/1dl/1/5 pt/just under half a cup of cold water
For the toppings:
- 170g/6oz/just under 2 cups of Gruyère, Appenzeller or Fontina cheese, grated or cut into chunks
- 170g/6oz/1 1/3 cups of Emmental cheese, cut into chunks
- 100g/3 1/2 oz/just under half a cup of butter
- 2 yellow onions
- A pinch of salt and pepper
Make it vegan: Replace the eggs with 24 tablespoons (approx. 425ml) of aquafaba, or with flax egg, which you can make by combining 8 tablespoons of ground flaxseed with 20 tablespoons (approx. 350ml) of water. Leave the flax egg mixture to sit for five minutes before using.
Use plant based margarine instead of butter, and use vegan German cheeses from brands like Bute Island instead of Gruyère, Appenzeller, Fontina and Emmental. Or you can make your own: Miyoko Schinner’s Artisan Vegan Cheese has recipes for both Gruyère and Emmental.
- A Spätzle maker. This is like a cheese grater which you push dough through. Alternatively, use a colander or a cheese grater.
- A large mixing bowl
- A medium sized saucepan (using a medium sized saucepan rather than a larger one means you can rest the Spätzle maker on the sides of the pan while you’re pushing the Knöpfle through)
- A large frying pan or skillet
- A colander
- A casserole dish
- First make the Knöpfle: sift the flour into a large mixing bowl. Add the salt, eggs, nutmeg and water and stir everything together thoroughly. The mixture should form a thick, viscous liquid, like pancake batter- if it seems too thick add a little more water.
- Cover the bowl with a tea towel and leave it for 20 minutes. While the Knöpfle mixture is resting, prepare the onions by peeling them and chopping them width-ways into strips.
- Heat the butter in a large frying pan or skillet set over a low-medium heat, and add the onions. Sauté them for about 20 minutes, or until they’re soft and golden brown. If desired, continue sautéing them until they’re crispy and brown.
- Preheat the oven to 140°C/275°F/Gas Mark 1.
- Set a medium sized saucepan of water over a high heat. Add a tablespoon of salt to the water and bring it to the boil.
- When the water begins to boil, set a Spätzle maker (or a colander) over the saucepan and drop some of the Knöpfle dough through it, allowing the dumplings to fall directly into the boiling water. (See tips.) Once they’re in the pan the Knöpfle only take about two minutes to cook- they’re ready when they float to the surface. Lift them from the water with a slotted spoon and drain them in a colander or sieve. Use the Spätzle maker to drop some more Knöpfle batter into the pan. Pour the finished Knöpfle into a casserole dish and pop it in the oven to keep them warm while you cook the remaining Knöpfle in the pan.
- When all the Knöpfle have been cooked and added to the casserole dish, add the cheese to the dish and mix everything together. Return the dish to the oven for five minutes, or until the cheese has melted.
- When it’s ready, pour the Käsknöpfle into individual serving bowls and top with the caramelized onion. Serve immediately.
- Guten Appetit!
- A Spätzle maker allows you to drop little Knöpfle dumplings straight into the boiling cooking water, which prevents them from sticking together when they’re cooking. To do this, nestle the Spätzle maker on the saucepan with the sliding box facing upwards. Pop a few tablespoons of the Knöpfle dough into the sliding box, then, holding the handle of the Spätzle maker in one hand, manually slide the box from side to side with your other hand like you’re grating cheese. This will help bits of Knöpfle drop through the holes, straight into the water.
- If you have trouble pushing the Knöpfle through the Spätzle maker, the batter is too thick- add some more water to the batter and try again.
- If you can’t get ahold of a Spätzle maker, you can use a colander (or even a cheese grater) instead- set the colander over the pan of water, pop some Knöpfle batter into it, and use a wooden spoon to push bits of batter through the holes into the water. Alternatively, add less water to the batter when you make it, so it is quite thick and reasonably solid, then roll it up on a chopping board and cut it into tiny little pieces and drop these into the water manually.
- If the Knöpfle seem a little dry when you add them to the casserole dish, add a little water and stir everything together before you add the cheese.
- Käsknöpfle should be served with green salad, potato salad, and/or applesauce
Home: Liechtenstein, western Austria, southern Germany, Switzerland
Relatives: Bryndzové Halušky (Slovakia), Gnocchi (Italy), Vaseršpacli (Slovenia), Macaroni Cheese (UK/USA)
Liechtenstein is a landlocked germanophone Alpine microstate, bordered by St. Gallen in eastern Switzerland and Vorarlberg in western Austria. It shares strong cultural and culinary similarities with both, as well as with the nearby southern German states of Bavaria and Baden-Wurttemberg. Liechtenstein’s national dish, Käsknöpfle, is also traditionally eaten in these regions: it’s known as Käsespätzle in the southern German states and Switzerland. In parts of Austria, the Knöpfle, cheese and onion are mixed and cooked together in a pan, and it’s known as Kasnocken.
Käsknöpfle, Käsespätzle and Kasnocken all mean ‘cheese dumplings.’ Different cheeses are used in each. Emmental and Gruyère are often favoured because of their melting properties, which allow them to set nicely around the Knöpfle: for similar reasons, these cheese are also used in Swiss fondue and gratins. Other types of Bergkäse are used for Käsespätzle in southern Germany, while types of Sauerkäse and Räßkäse are used in western Austria.
Egg and flour pasta dumplings like Knöpfle and Spätzle, as well as Hungarian Nokedli and Slovakian Halušky, are a traditional food across the Alps and central Europe. The oldest known reference to flour-based ‘Knöpflein’ and ‘Spazen’ dates back to the early 18th century, when they were recorded as being eaten in Württemberg, but in all likelihood they have been eaten since at least mediaeval times. Their names refer to their size: ‘Spätzle‘, their Swabian name, means ‘little sparrows’, while Knöpfle means ‘little buttons.’ Though initially they were a staple food, as living standards and food resources improved over the course of the nineteenth century they were increasingly viewed as a delicacy, to be eaten during special occasions, festivals and feasts.
Making these Belarussian potato pancakes is quite labour-intensive, but the end result is hearty, satisfying and tasty- perfect for a winter evening and well worth the effort.
|Preparation time: 20 minutes||Cooking time: 10 to 20 minutes|
|Serves: 4||Difficulty: Difficult|
- 2 yellow onions
- Vegetable oil
- 30g/1oz/1 cup of dried wild mushrooms (or 150g/5oz/2 cups of fresh mushrooms)
- A pinch of fresh dill
- Salt and pepper
- 700g/25oz/4 medium sized yellow or gold potatoes
- 2 eggs
- 1 tablespoon of sour cream
- 2 tablespoons of plain flour
- Extra sour cream, to serve
Make it vegan: replace the eggs with six tablespoons of aquafaba, or with some flax egg, which you can make by stirring two tablespoons of ground flaxseed into 5 tablespoons of water. (Leave the flax egg to sit for 5 minutes before using.)
Use a vegan sour cream brand (or try making your own by blending nuts, dairy free yoghurt and flavourings together.)
- A box grater or food processor
- A large mixing bowl
- A large frying pan
- A sharp knife
- A spatula
- If using dried mushrooms, re-hydrate them according to their package instructions.
- Mince the mushrooms, and peel and finely chop one of the onions. Set a large frying pan over a medium heat and sauté the chopped onion with a little vegetable oil for a few minutes, until it’s soft.
- Remove the pan from the heat and stir the mushrooms, dill and a pinch of salt and pepper into the sautéed onion. Spoon the onion and mushroom mixture into a container and set the frying pan aside to use again later.
- Peel the potatoes and the remaining onion.
- Grate the potatoes into a large mixing bowl using a box grater- use the side with rough, star shaped holes. Be careful and if possible, use protective gloves!
- Stir the grated potatoes together. If any starchy liquid settles on the surface, use a spoon to remove about a tablespoon’s worth.
- Grate the onion, again using the side of the grater with rough, star shaped holes, and stir it into the grated potatoes.
- Finally, stir the egg (or substitute), flour, sour cream and a pinch of salt and pepper into the grated potato and onion.
- Set the frying pan over a medium heat and add two tablespoons of oil. Leave it for a couple of minutes to heat up. It’s ready when the oil sizzles if you drop a little potato mixture in it.
- When ready, add a tablespoon of the potato mixture to the pan. Flatten it down with the spoon, spoon a teaspoon or so of the mushroom mixture onto it, then spoon another tablespoon of the potato mixture onto the mushroom mixture, so it’s like a little potato-mushroom-potato sandwich. Repeat this process three or four times, so you have a few separate Draniki cooking in the pan at once.
- Sauté the Draniki for about four minutes, before gently flipping them over with a spatula and sautéing again on the other side for four minutes more. They’re ready when both sides are golden brown.
- Repeat this process until the potato and mushroom mixtures are used up, adding more oil to the pan if necessary. You can keep the finished Draniki warm in the oven while you’re cooking new ones if need be.
- Serve the Draniki hot, with lots of sour cream (see tips for serving suggestions.)
- Smačna jeści! (Смачна есьці!)
- I’ve rated this recipe as ‘difficult’ because grating the potatoes and onion can be quite strenuous, time consuming, and a bit risky for your fingertips! Wear protective gloves when grating as it’s very easy to grate your fingers by accident.
- To save your fingers and quite a bit of time, you can puree the potatoes and onion in a food processor instead of grating them. But the texture won’t be anywhere near as good-the Draniki mixture is supposed to have the consistency of apple sauce, or of well-mashed banana. So I’d recommend grating them because it’s well worth it, and once you’ve done it the rest of the recipe is plain sailing!
- You can use fresh or dried mushrooms in Draniki, but dried mushrooms are recommended as they are particularly flavourful.
- Make sure you use a spoon to flatten down the Draniki mixture a little when you add it to the pan.
- Try not to flip the Draniki too many times when they’re cooking, or they may disintegrate.
- Draniki are always served hot, with sour cream. If desired, you can also drizzle them with extra fried onion, extra dill and fresh herbs, and/or berries. You can also serve them up with some Machanka (Belarusian pork stew), and with some Kvass (a non-alcoholic fermented rye drink.) Draniki can be served at any time of day, and were initially usually eaten for breakfast.
- For a really great traditional Belarusian meal, stew the finished Draniki with meat and vegetables in ceramic or clay cooking pots. Pop half of the Draniki into the pots and cover them in layers of fried vegetables, mushrooms and sausages, then pop the rest of the Draniki on top and pour sour cream over them. Cover the pots and place them in the oven on a low setting for a few hours before serving.
Home: Belarus, Russia
Relatives: Deruny (Ukraine), Latke (Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine), Placki Ziemniaczane (Poland), Raggmunkar (Sweden), Bramboráky (Czechia), Kartoffelpuffer (Germany), Kartupeļu Pankūkas (Latvia)
Draniki are made using two popular Belarusian ingredients: potatoes and mushrooms.
Potatoes were introduced to central and eastern Europe a few centuries ago and, being relatively cheap and easy to grow, quickly became a staple food for poorer people throughout the region. A plethora of potato-based dishes emerged as traditional recipes were tweaked to incorporate the vegetable, including potato pancakes. The earliest such pancake may have been the Ashkenazi Jewish Latke, which likely developed from a mediaeval Ashkenazi fried cream cheese dish. Over the centuries the Ashkenazim began to make rye, buckwheat and turnip based pancakes instead of cream cheese pancakes: when potatoes were later introduced to Europe, they used these instead. Eventually, distinct regional varieties of the potato pancake developed, including the Ukrainian Deruny, Latvian Kartupeļu Pankūkas, Czech Bramboráky, as well as the Belarusian Draniki– which means ‘to tear’ in Belarusian, a reference to how the potatoes are prepared.
Potatoes are ubiquitous in Belarusian cuisine, to the extent that in Russia, Belarusians are sometimes pejoratively nicknamed the Bulbashi– ‘the potato people!’ According to the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization, Belarusians eat more potatoes per capita than any other nation on earth. They enjoy a huge variety of other potato-based dishes besides Draniki, including Babka (soft potato cakes), Kletski (potato dumplings), Tsibriki (cheese stuffed potato balls), Kishka (sausages stuffed with potatoes) and Shchi (soup with potatoes.) Mushrooms are also very popular in Belarus and are found in many dishes besides Draniki.
Paella is a rice dish from Valencia and a symbol of Valencian cuisine and culture. For this recipe, Valencian vegetables, meats and rice are cooked in the traditional style to recreate authentic Paella.
Chicken and rabbit are used in Paella Valenciana but these can be replaced with other ingredients to make different traditional versions of Paella. Use langoustines, monkfish, shrimp, mussels and squid to make Seafood Paella, artichokes, peas, peppers and extra beans to make Vegetable Paella, and keep the chicken but replace the rabbit with langoustines, mussels, shrimp and extra beans to make Mixed Paella. You can also add traditional ingredients like Tabella white beans and edible snails (such as Valencian Vaquettes) to any of these Paellas.
|Preparation time: 5 minutes||Cooking time: 50-60 minutes|
|Serves: 8||Difficulty: Moderate|
- 200ml/2 dl/1 1/3 pt/just under a cup of extra virgin olive oil
- 20g/2/3oz/just over 3 tsp of salt
- 500g/18oz/4 cups of chicken legs and thighs
- 500g/18oz/about 8 rabbit legs and/or ribs
- 400g/14oz/2 2/3 cups of Ferradura (or flat green beans)
- 250g/9oz/3 cups of Garrofó beans (lima beans or butter beans)
- 200g/7oz/1 cup of tomatoes (preferably striped tomatoes)
- 1 1/2 tbsp Pimentó (paprika, preferably smoked paprika) (optional)
- 2ltrs/20 dl/3 1/2 pt/8 cups of boiling hot water
- 1/4 tsp saffron
- 2 sprigs of fresh rosemary (optional)
- 500g/18oz/2 1/2 cups of round grain rice, preferably bomba or senia
Make it vegan: replace the chicken and rabbit with a meat substitute like tempeh or Quorn chicken. Alternatively, get rid of the meat entirely and make a traditional Vegetable Paella with artichokes, peppers and extra beans.
- A 30-40cm Paella pan- I wouldn’t substitute a Paella with a different pan as the effect won’t be the same
- A gas hob (or wood fire and tripod)- paella pans are usually not suitable for electric hobs
- A cheese grater
- Wash the Ferradura and Garrofó beans and the tomatoes. Chop the Ferradura into small chunks and manually grate or chop the tomatoes, and cut the chicken and rabbit (or meat substitutes) into large chunks.
- Light the hob (or wood fire) and set the flames to very low. Place the paella pan over the flames, making sure the centre of the pan is directly over the fire. Pour in the oil. After a minute or two raise the temperature of the flames to low.
- Add the salt, chicken and rabbit (or meat substitute) to the centre of the pan and fry them until the meats are nicely browned but not thoroughly cooked. Then move them to the edges of the pan so they are away from the heat.
- Add the Ferradura and Garrofó beans to the centre of the pan and fry them for a couple of minutes without burning them, then move them to the edges of the pan. Then add the tomatoes to the centre and fry them for a few minutes, until the tomato juice has evaporated. Move them to the edges of the pan and add the Pimentó to the centre of the pan and fry it for a few minutes.
- Bring the flame temperature up to high and fill the pan with boiling hot water. From this point onward, don’t stir or move the contents of the pan around at all. Wait until the water starts boiling rapidly in the pan and then add the saffron.
- Allow the water to continue boiling rapidly until a quarter of it has evaporated, then pour the rice into the centre of the pan and add the rosemary.
- Allow the contents of the pan to continue boiling for about eight minutes. When you can see the rice, fish out the rosemary sprigs and remove them from the pan, then reduce the flames to medium.
- Continue cooking for about eight more minutes. When the water is mostly gone, bring the flames back up to high and cook for a further two minutes, so you get a nice socarrat– the tasty, crunchy rice at the bottom of the pan.
- Remove the pan from the flames and leave it to rest for five to ten minutes. If the rice isn’t quite cooked, cover the pan with aluminium foil while its resting.
- To serve, set down the Paella and sit around it. Eat it straight from the pan with spoons.
- Buen provecho!
- Don’t stir the paella once the water has been added to the pan
- If you aren’t able to cook the Paella over a wood fire, use smoked paprika in the dish to recreate Paella’s traditional smokey flavour and aroma
- Only use round, Spanish rice, preferably senia or bomba
- When it’s ready to serve, the Paella should be eaten straight out of the pan and not dished into seperate serving dishes
It’s pronounced: /paɪˈ(j)ɛlə/ (pae-el-lah)
It’s from: Valencia, Spain
It’s related to: Fideuà (Valencia), Arròs Negre (Valencia, Catalunia), Arroz a la Valenciana (Philippines and Latin America), Risotto (Italy)
Valencian rice farming has a long history. Irrigation was introduced to the region by the ancient Romans, which facilitated local agriculture. So when, centuries later, the Moors imported rice to Valencia, they found the local area was suitable for cultivating it. By the time of the Reconquista, there were thousands of hectares of rice fields around Valencia, and rice was fast becoming a staple food across the Iberian Peninsula.
According to legend, Paella originated as a dish eaten by the Moors’ servants, who would take leftover rice from their kitchens and mix it with whatever vegetables they had to hand. The dish continued to develop after the Reconquista, when Valencians would cook rice in earthenware pots with locally sourced eels, meats and vegetables and imported saffron. Later, during the Industrial Revolution, metal pans became more affordable and popular and vegetables and meats became more readily available. As a result, Valencian farm workers could bring hardy metal pans with them to the fields and were able to prepare a communal rice dish for lunch, into which they would throw whatever vegetables, edible snails and meats they had to hand. As the 19th century progressed, the increasingly wealthy urban Valencians were able to holiday in the countryside, where they found they enjoyed the rice prepared by the local field workers. The urban Valencians spruced it up with spices and brought it to the city with them. This glamorous rustic dish was named Paella, after the metal pan it was cooked in.
Valencian paella was popularized across Spain in the 20th century under Franco, who was purportedly very fond of the dish and wanted to eat it wherever he went. Though internationally Paella is associated with Spanish culture as a whole, in Spain itself it is considered to be specifically part of Valencian culture and cuisine, and sites like WikiPaella and PaellaBible have been founded to help preserve authentic Valencian Paella.
This celebrated Russian stew is rich, creamy and luxurious and can be accompanied by potatoes, pasta, rice or buckwheat.
|Preparation time: 10 minutes||Cooking time: 20 minutes|
|Serves: 4||Difficulty: Moderate|
- 85g/3oz/just over 1/3 cup of butter
- 2 yellow onions
- 225g/8oz/2 cups of button mushrooms
- 1 tsp fresh dill
- A few sprigs of parsley
- 450g/1lb/2 cups of beef tenderloin steak
- 1 tablespoon of Dijon mustard
- 1 tablespoon of tomato purée
- A pinch of salt and pepper
- 400ml/4dl/3/4 pt/1 3/4 cups of beef stock
- 1 tablespoon of plain flour
- 125ml/1.5 dl/1/4 pt/1/2 cup of white wine
- 250ml/2.5dl/1/2 pt/1 cup of sour cream
- Mashed or fried potatoes, pasta, rice, or boiled buckwheat, to serve
Make it vegan: Use plant based margarine instead of butter and vegetable stock instead of beef, an unfiltered vegan white wine, and vegan steak strips or tofu steaks instead of beef. Use vegan sour cream, try making your own, or substitute it with a cup of vegan yoghurt mixed with a tablespoon of lemon juice or vinegar.
- A chopping board and sharp knife
- A large casserole dish
- A sieve
- A wooden spoon
- Finely cut the beef into long, thin strips, peel and dice the onion, and chop up the dill, parsley and mushrooms.
- Heat the butter in a large casserole dish over a medium high heat.
- Add the mushrooms and onion to the pan and sauté them gently for 5-7 minutes, stirring occasionally, until the onion is slightly translucent.
- Then add the beef strips to the pan and sauté for a further 3 or 4 minutes, stirring often, until the strips are lightly browned.
- Add the salt, pepper, mustard, tomato purée and beef stock to the pan, and stir everything together.
- Bring the contents of the pan to a gentle boil, then reduce the heat slightly and allow them to simmer.
- Gently sieve the flour into the pan and stir it in, before stirring in the wine. Finally, add the sour cream, stirring in a few tablespoons of sour cream at a time. Continue to simmer for another two minutes.
- Remove the Stroganoff from the heat and stir in the parsley and dill.
- Serve with mashed or fried potatoes, rice, pasta, or boiled buckwheat.
- Приятного аппетита! (Priyatnovo appetita!)
- Once you’ve added all the sour cream, don’t continue cooking the Stroganoff for more than two minutes- any longer and the beef will toughen too much.
Pronunciation: /ˈstrȯ-gə-ˌnȯf/ (strow-goh-noff)
Relatives: Beauf Bourguignon (France)
Beef Stroganoff seems to have been popularized in the late 19th century. It likely takes its name from the Stroganovs, an enormously wealthy and influential Russian family who were first ennobled in the 15th century, but its exact origins and its connections with the Stroganovs are a bit murky.
In the 19th century, the Russian nobility were famously enamored with France and its culture. Many wealthy families had apartments in Paris, sent their children to be educated in France, spoke French to one another, and employed French servants and companions: the Stroganovs certainly had French chefs. As a result, 19th century Russian dishes could be a bit of an amalgamation of Russian and French cuisine. Stroganoff has strong similarities to French Beauf Bourguignon and has a classic French creamy mustard sauce,but it has a definite Russian twist, as it incorporates sour cream, which was (and is) a staple product in eastern Europe and Russia.
Stroganoff is particularly associated with Alexander Grigorievich Stroganov, a 19th century count and government minister, who, towards the end of his life, purportedly suffered from poor dental health and found himself unable to eat large chunks of beef. According to one story, Alexander Grigorievich asked his French chef to prepare him small strips of beef, fried and then softened in sauce, so that his teeth could cope. As he often had many friends and acquaintances over for lunch, members of other households became familiar with his chef’s beef recipe and asked their own chefs to prepare it, and so the recipe spread.
Another story is that the dish became popular after the Stroganov chef, Charles Briere, prepared beef strips in sour cream for a St. Petersberg cookery competition in 1891. When he won, he named the dish after his employer as per Russian custom, albeit in the French naming style, so called it Beef Stroganoff: ‘Beef in Stroganoff sauce.’ The dish actually appears in Elena Molokhovets’ 1887 edition of her Russian Cookbook, A Gift to Young Housewives, so Stroganoff predates the cookery competition- but Briere’s victory (and Molokhovets’ book) may have helped popularize it throughout the country. Briere’s version certainly developed the dish from Molokhovet’s recipe, which called for small cubes of beef as opposed to strips and lacked many ingredients now considered indispensable to Stroganoff, like mushrooms, wine, onions and tomatoes.
The dish was not initially eaten outside Russia. Russian emigres who fled poverty and Tsarist oppression in the late 19th and early 20th century were not necessarily familiar with or enthusiastic about the luxurious dish. But after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the fall of Tsarist Russia, noble families who had been able to afford Stroganoff also fled the country. Travelling west to Europe and America and east to China, these nostalgic emigres popularized the dish abroad in luxurious Russian-style restaurants.
This Romanian version of Cauliflower Cheese is a great side dish and a comforting winter warmer.
|Preparation time: 25 minutes||Cooking time: 30 minutes|
|Serves: 4 (as a side dish)||Difficulty: Moderate|
- 500g/18oz/4 1/2 cups of cauliflower
- 2 white onions
- 300g/11oz/1 1/3 cups of sunculita, pastramă or smoked bacon
- 1 tbsp vegetable oil
- 2 cloves of garlic
- 200g/7oz/just under a cup of sour cream
- 2 eggs
- 150g/5oz/1- 1 1/2 cups of cascaval, cheddar and/or emmental cheese
- 1 tbsp paprika
- Pinch of salt and pepper
Make it vegan: This is a bit of a tricky one as it’s a dairy and meat heavy dish! Replace the sour cream with vegan sour cream, or with an equal amount of vegan yoghurt, or with soya milk with a teaspoon of lemon juice. Replace the eggs with 2 tbsp of aquafaba, and use vegan bacon or Quorn BBQ strips instead of pastrami. Replace the cheese with vegan cheddar or a mix of vegan cheeses.
- A large saucepan
- A colander
- A frying pan
- A casserole dish
- Remove any leaves from the cauliflower and cut the florets into small chunks.
- Bring a saucepan of water to the boil and add the cauliflower florets to the pan. Boil for 8 minutes, stirring occasionally.
- Drain the cauliflower florets and place them in a casserole dish.
- Preheat the oven to 200’C/400’F/Gas Mark 6.
- Peel and finely chop the onions and garlic. Heat the oil in a frying pan over a medium heat and add the onions to the pan. Sauté for about five minutes, stirring occasionally.
- Meanwhile, chop up the pastramă or bacon and add it to the pan along with the garlic. Sauté for another five minutes, stirring occasionally. Then remove the pan from the heat and pour its contents over the cauliflower.
- Stir the sour cream, eggs and cheese together, and pour the mixture over the cauliflower and onions.
- Gently toss the contents of the casserole dish together, then sprinkle the paprika, salt and pepper on top.
- Bake the cauliflower in the oven for 20-30 minutes, then serve straight away.
- Poftă Bună!
Relatives: Cauliflower Cheese (UK), Macaroni Cheese
In the medieval era, there were several instances of German speaking populations who emigrated from relatively highly populated areas of the Holy Roman Empire into less populated regions in central and eastern Europe, a phenomenon known as Ostsiedlung.
The ‘Saxons’ this dish was inspired by were German speaking settlers who emigrated to Transylvania from the twelfth century onward. Transylvania is today located in central Romania, but at the time it was a voivodeship, or governorate, of the Kingdom of Hungary. This first wave of German speaking settlers were encouraged to migrate to Transylvania by King Géza II of Hungary: it was hoped they would help to defend the region from the invading Cumans and Tatars, and that they would use their mining expertise to help improve the local economy.
Though they were known locally as ‘Saxons’, these German speakers actually hailed from the north-west of the Holy Roman Empire: modern day Luxembourg, north-east France and north-west Germany. The German language they spoke was likely one or more Franconian or West Germanic languages, and the particular dialect they developed in Transylvania became known as Såksesch. Later German speaking settlers emigrated from Bavaria, the Rhineland, and the low countries: by the thirteenth century, the Teutonic Knights were asked to join them by King Andrew II of Hungary.
These waves of German speaking settlers began to build their own towns and fortresses, which they used to continue defending Transylvania’s borders for the Kingdom of Hungary. Over the years these German speaking groups became increasingly urbanized. They remained relatively linguistically, culturally, economically, and – after the Protestant Reformation- religiously distinct from other local groups, and had their own cuisine, which inspired this ‘Saxon-style’ Romanian dish.